;;; extensions [ nw ] ;; using this extension would allow easy selection of canned network generation
;; I want to create my own network as a learning exercise with netlogo.
;; I'm not quite ready to use the canned, parameterizable networks just yet.
breed [spruces spruce] ;; nodes in network that live on patches
breed [firs fir] ;; nodes in network that live on patches
breed [mushrooms mushroom] ;; nodes in network that live on patches
breed [spruce-roots spruce-root] ;; for growing roots on patches
breed [fir-roots fir-root] ;; for growing roots on patches
breed [mushroom-roots mushroom-root] ;; for growing roots on patches
breed [spruce-particles spruce-particle] ;; for diffusion creation of roots
breed [fir-particles fir-particle] ;; for diffusion creation of roots
breed [mushroom-particles mushroom-particle] ;; for diffusion creation of roots
spruces-own [ age extended-root-set i-touch isolated? ]
firs-own [ age extended-root-set i-touch isolated? ]
mushrooms-own [ age extended-root-set i-touch isolated? ]
spruce-roots-own [ mushroom-set tree-set origin]
fir-roots-own [ mushroom-set tree-set origin ]
mushroom-roots-own [ mushroom-set tree-set origin ]
globals [ spruce-plist fir-plist mushroom-plist
tree-pass? mushroom-pass? link-pass? link-pass-limit links-finished?
all-agents-set reduced-search-agentset root-radius
absolute-tick-limit]
;;====================================
;; main routines setup and go
to setup
clear-all
set root-radius 4
;; after root propagation touch lists are interesting
;; trees get propagated first in the tree-pass - mushrooms get propagated after the trees
;; (trees, mushrooms, and roots touching on patches are interesting and turn yellow
generate-spruce-plist ;; patch list of where to plant spruce
generate-fir-plist ;; patch list of where to plant fir
generate-mushroom-plist ;; patch list of where to plant mushrooms
;; Random selection uses 3 distinct calls - will duplicate locations across lists exist? see notes in Utilities Section at bottom
;; clean-plists ;; for now this call is commented out -
;; Have the trees and mushrooms show up in the visible world
plant-spruces
plant-firs
plant-mushrooms
set tree-pass? true
reset-ticks ;; now we are ready to do interesting stuff like grow roots and establish a connectivity graph (network)
end
to go
let end-tree tree-pass-limit
let end-mush end-tree + mushroom-pass-limit
let end-links end-mush + 1 ;; we only need one tick to make links
if (tree-pass? = true) [
ifelse ticks = end-tree [
set tree-pass? false ;; stop tree root growth pass
set mushroom-pass? true ;; start mushroom pass
clean-up-tree-pass
]
[ execute-tree-pass ] ;; tick limit not reached, keep on generating roots
]
if (mushroom-pass? = true) [
ifelse ticks = end-mush [
set mushroom-pass? false ;; stop mushroom root growth pass
set link-pass? true ;; start link pass
clean-up-mush-pass
]
[ execute-mushroom-pass ] ;; tick limit not reached, keep on generating roots
]
if (link-pass? = true) [
ifelse ticks = end-links [
set link-pass? false ;; stop link pass
stop
]
[ execute-link-pass ] ;; tick limit not reached, keep on generating roots
]
;; add a perturbation pass here when ready
tick
end
;; end of main routines setup and go
;;====================================
;; *********** Start of pass code **********
;; ==== tree pass code (spruce and fir) ====
to execute-tree-pass
;; = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = spruces first
propagate-spruce-roots ;; makes spruce particles that wiggle and diffuse
grow-spruces ;; interacts with wiggling spruce particles - deciding when/where roots grow
;; = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = spruce finished - firs next
propagate-fir-roots ;; makes fir particles that wiggle and diffuse
grow-firs ;; interacts with wiggling fir particles - deciding when/where roots grow
end
to clean-up-tree-pass
dissolve-spruce-particles ;; kill off unused particle agents
dissolve-fir-particles
update-spruces ;; now trees start aging when updated
update-firs
end
;; ==== mushroom pass code =======
to execute-mushroom-pass
propagate-mushroom-roots ;; makes mushroom particles that wiggle and diffuse
grow-mushrooms ;; interacts with wiggling mushroom particles - deciding when/where roots grow
end
to clean-up-mush-pass
dissolve-mushroom-particles ;; kill off unused particle agents
update-mushrooms ;; mushrooms start aging when updated
update-spruces ;; trees keep aging along with mushrooms
update-firs
end
;; ==== link pass code =======
to execute-link-pass
;; only need the above ground agents - root generation has done most of the work already
set all-agents-set turtles with [breed = spruces or breed = firs or breed = mushrooms]
detect-isolation ;; sets the isolated? property of all-agents-set
set reduced-search-agentset all-agents-set with [isolated? = false]
;; reduced-agentset will be used for the collect touches procedure
collect-touches ;; use the i-touch list of each non-isolated agent to make links between pairs of connected things
if (hide-isolated?)
[ hide-isolated-agents ]
ask reduced-search-agentset [
create-links-with other turtle-set i-touch [
set thickness 2
set color red
]
]
end
;; ************ End of pass code ***********
;;(NOTE: we could reduce the code size if parameterization of procedures was used)
;; newbie fumbling
;; Start of Agent code
;; ===== spruce code =====
to generate-spruce-plist
set spruce-plist (list) ;; start with empty list
rand-spruce-pxy-coord ;; generate random list of seed patches
end
to dissolve-spruce-particles
ask spruce-particles with [color = pink]
[set color black die]
end
to propagate-spruce-roots
;; create spruce particles that will aggregate into spruce roots around the spruce seed patches
create-spruce-particles num-spruce-particles [
set color pink
set size 2 ;; easier to see
setxy random-xcor random-ycor
] ; set them in motion - individual particles die after making a root - rest die later (dissolve)
ask spruce-particles [
right random tree-wiggle-angle
left random tree-wiggle-angle
forward 1
]
end
to plant-spruces
;; use the spruce patch list to sprout spruces on designated patches
foreach spruce-plist [
ask ? [ sprout-spruces 1
[ ;; commands to initialize
set age random 4
setxy pxcor pycor
set pcolor blue ;; patch under spruce is blue
set color blue + 4 ;; spruce on patch is lighter shade
set shape "tree"
set size 8
set i-touch (list) ;; list of everything I touch (known after all root generation is complete)
set isolated? false
set extended-root-set no-turtles
]
] ;; sprout
] ;; foreach
end
to update-spruces
;; increase age
ask spruces [ set age age + 1 ]
;; adjust color for age
ask spruces [ set color scale-color blue age 10 0 ]
;; adjust size for age
ask spruces [ set size (size + ((random 4) + 1)) ]
end
to grow-spruces
;; spruce particles are wiggling around in the world
ask spruce-particles [
let current-patch patch-at 0 0 ;; target patch under particle
;; near a patch that is color-coded for a spruce tree or spruce root ?
ifelse (any? neighbors with [ pcolor = yellow ])
[ ;; some kind of root connection already established - don't make anything here to avoid duplicates
]
[ ;; otherwise - not yellow
if (any? neighbors with [ pcolor = blue ]) ;; ask particles if spruce patches (tree or root) nearby
[ ;; blue neighbors, maybe coalesce new root
ask current-patch [ coalesce-spruce-root self ]
;; - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - touching anything?
;; ///// coalesce might have made a new spruce root on current patch /////
;; check all neighbors for blue root touching blue root with different root-owner trees (spruce root touching spruce root directly)
let blue-n spruce-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch
let new-spr-root spruce-roots-on current-patch
if any? new-spr-root
[ if (any? blue-n) ;; neighbor could be a tree - make sure you have to roots to check
[ ask current-patch [ check-blue-touch-blue self ]
]
]
;; ///// coalesce might have made a new spruce root on current patch /////
;; check all neighbors for blue root touching green root (spruce root touching fir root)
let green-n fir-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch
if any? new-spr-root
[ if (any? green-n) ;; neighbor could be a tree - make sure you have roots to check
[ ask current-patch [ check-blue-touch-green self ]
]
]
;; ///// coalesce might have made a new spruce root on current patch /////
;; BUT - no mushroom roots just yet - so no need to check all neighbors for blue touch violet (done in mushroom pass)
;; - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - touching anything?
die;; spruce particle can now die, having completed its purpose
] ;; close blue neighbors, maybe coalesce new root
] ;; close not yellow
] ;; close ask spruce particles
end
to coalesce-spruce-root [ current-patch ]
;; Coalesce a new spruce root on current patch
;; \\\\\ is a spruce tree nearby? - prefer hooking to tree first over an existing root (if-else)
let blue-nabor-trees spruces-on [neighbors] of current-patch
ifelse (any? blue-nabor-trees) ;; neighbor could be a root and neighbor tree could be empty - make sure you have tree to hook to
[ ask one-of blue-nabor-trees
[ ;; current patch will host a spruce root for this tree with data from neighbor
let blue-nabor-owner self ;; self is one spruce tree
ask current-patch ;; self is now patch
[ sprout-spruce-roots 1 [ ;; commands to initialize
setxy pxcor pycor
set pcolor blue ;; patch is blue
set color blue - 4 ;; root is darker than patch
set origin blue-nabor-owner
set tree-set turtle-set blue-nabor-owner ;; trees that spruce root knows about
set mushroom-set no-turtles ;; encounter mushrooms later
]
] ;; sprout
;; tell neighbor tree about this new root
;; grab existing extended-root-set from neighbor
let new-spr-root spruce-roots-on current-patch
let ers [extended-root-set] of blue-nabor-owner
ask blue-nabor-owner [ set extended-root-set (turtle-set new-spr-root ers)] ;; new root goes in front of set
] ;; ask neighbor tree
] ;; true block ifelse
[ ;; false block ifelse - no spruce tree as neighbor - must be one or more spruce root neighbors
let blue-nabor-roots spruce-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch
if ( not any? spruce-roots-on current-patch )
[ ;; OK to make a new one
;; \\\\\ just check one neighbor;s info to make new root - but need to check all neighbors for touching situations after new root is made
if (any? blue-nabor-roots) ;; neighbor could be a tree and neighbor could be roots empty - make sure you have roots to check
[ ask one-of blue-nabor-roots
[ ;; current patch will host a spruce root for same tree as neighbor root
let blue-nabor-owner [origin] of self ;; self is one spruce root - origin is a tree
ask current-patch ;; self is now patch
[ sprout-spruce-roots 1 [ ;; commands to initialize
setxy pxcor pycor
set pcolor blue ;; patch is blue
set color blue - 4 ;; root is darker than patch
set origin blue-nabor-owner
set tree-set turtle-set blue-nabor-owner ;; trees that spruce root knows about
set mushroom-set no-turtles ;; encounter mushrooms later
]
] ;; sprout
;; neighbor root's tree's extended-root-set gets this spruce root
let new-spr-root spruce-roots-on current-patch
let ers [extended-root-set] of blue-nabor-owner ; grab existing data first
ask blue-nabor-owner [ set extended-root-set (turtle-set new-spr-root ers) ] ;; add new root to front of existing data
]
]
] ;; close spruce-roots-on current-patch check
] ;; close false block of ifelse
end
to check-blue-touch-blue [current-patch]
let blue-n spruce-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch ;; neighbors to check could host more than one blue root
let new-spr-root one-of spruce-roots-on current-patch ;; for current patch should be only one
let spruce-owner [origin] of new-spr-root
ask blue-n ;; blue-n is a set of patches
[ let blue-n-root one-of spruce-roots-on blue-n
ask blue-n-root
[ let blue-n-owner origin ;; ask about neighbor's owner [origin]
if (blue-n-owner != spruce-owner)
[ ;; hook new tree-set to closest neighbor tree-set and vice versa
;; figure out closest neighbor root and harvest its data
let blue-n-candidate blue-n with [origin = blue-n-owner] ;; candidates for closest root must be owned by neighbor
let closest-spr-root-patch min-one-of blue-n-candidate [distance current-patch]
let closest-spr-root spruce-roots-on closest-spr-root-patch
;; ask closest spruce root for its tree set and tree [origin]
let closest-spr-tree-set [tree-set] of closest-spr-root
let closest-spr-tree [origin] of closest-spr-root
;; grab existing tree-set data for both new and closest BEFORE any updates
let new-ets [tree-set] of new-spr-root ;; toucher
let closest-ets [tree-set] of closest-spr-root ;; touchee
ask new-spr-root [ set tree-set (turtle-set new-ets closest-spr-tree) ] ;; toucher root knows touchee tree (last on end)
ask closest-spr-root [ set tree-set (turtle-set closest-ets spruce-owner) ] ;; touchee root knows toucher tree (last on end)
ask new-spr-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; new spruce root turns yellow
ask closest-spr-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; closest spruce root turns yellow
] ;; close hook
] ;; close ask blue-n-root
] ;; close ask blue-n
end
to check-blue-touch-green [ current-patch ]
let green-n fir-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch ;; neighbors to check could host more than one green root
;; spruce root on current patch is asked to do this check - identify which spruce root is checker
let new-spruce-root one-of spruce-roots-on current-patch ;; for current patch there should be only one
ask new-spruce-root ;; self is now the spruce root doing the checking
[
let spruce-owner origin ;; spruce tree that owns the root doing the checking
ask green-n ;; green-n is a set of patches
[ let green-n-root one-of fir-roots-on green-n
ask green-n-root
[ let green-n-owner origin ;; fir tree that owns the root being checked
;; don't need to ask about neighbor's owner - green and blue will be different owners
;; just do the hook trees instructions
let green-n-candidate green-n with [origin = green-n-owner] ;; candidates for closest root must be owned by neighbor
let closest-fir-root-patch min-one-of green-n-candidate [distance current-patch]
let closest-fir-root fir-roots-on closest-fir-root-patch
;; ask closest fir root for its tree set
let closest-fir-tree-set [tree-set] of closest-fir-root
let closest-fir-tree [origin] of closest-fir-root
;; grab existing tree-set data for both new and closest BEFORE any updates
let new-ets [tree-set] of new-spruce-root ;; toucher
let closest-ets [tree-set] of closest-fir-root ;; touchee
ask new-spruce-root [ set tree-set (turtle-set new-ets closest-fir-tree) ] ;; append fir tree to end of spruce's tree set
ask closest-fir-root [ set tree-set (turtle-set closest-ets spruce-owner) ] ;; append spruce tree to end of fir's tree set
;; need to update mushroom-sets too - but mushroom roots have not been grown yet
ask new-spruce-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; new spruce root (blue) turns yellow
ask closest-fir-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; closest fir root (green) turns yellow
] ;; close ask green root
] ;; close ask green neighbors
] ; close ask spruce root
end
;; ===== fir code =====
to generate-fir-plist
set fir-plist (list) ;; start with empty list
rand-fir-pxy-coord ;; generate random list of seed patches
end
to dissolve-fir-particles
ask fir-particles with [color = red]
[set color black die]
end
to propagate-fir-roots
;; create random fir particles that will aggregate into fir roots around the fir seed patches
create-fir-particles num-fir-particles
[
set color red
set size 2 ;; easier to see
setxy random-xcor random-ycor
]
ask fir-particles
[ ;; set them in motion - individual particles die after making a root - rest die later (dissolve)
right random tree-wiggle-angle
left random tree-wiggle-angle
forward 1
]
end
to plant-firs
;; use the fir patch list to sprout firs on designated patches
foreach fir-plist [
ask ? [ sprout-firs 1 [
set age random 3
setxy pxcor pycor
set pcolor green ;; patch under fir is green
set color green + 4 ;; fir on patch is lighter shade
set shape "tree"
set size 8
set i-touch (list) ;; list of everything I touch (after all root generation is complete)
set isolated? false
set extended-root-set no-turtles
]
] ;; ask
] ;; foreach
end
to grow-firs
;; fir particles are wiggling around in the world
ask fir-particles [
let current-patch patch-at 0 0 ;; target patch under particle
;; near a patch that is color-coded for a fir tree or fir root ?
ifelse (any? neighbors with [ pcolor = yellow ])
[ ;; some kind of root connection already established - don't make anything here to avoid duplicates
]
[ ;; not yellow
if (any? neighbors with [ pcolor = green ]) ;; ask particles if fir patches (tree or root) are nearby
[ ;; green neighbors, maybe coalesce new root
ask current-patch [ coalesce-fir-root self ]
;; - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - touching anything?
;; ///// coalesce might have made a new fir root on current patch /////
;; check all neighbors for green root touching green root with different root-owner trees (fir root touching fir root directly)
let green-n fir-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch
let new-fir-root fir-roots-on current-patch
if any? new-fir-root
[ if (any? green-n) ;; neighbor could be a tree - make sure you have roots to check
[ ask current-patch [ check-green-touch-green self ]
]
]
;; ///// coalesce might have made a new fir root on current patch /////
;; check all neighbors for green root touching blue root (fir root touching spruce root)
let blue-n spruce-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch
if any? new-fir-root
[ if (any? blue-n) ;; neighbor could be a tree - make sure you hook to roots
[ ask current-patch [ check-green-touch-blue self ]
]
]
;; ///// coalesce might have made a new fir root on current patch /////
;; BUT - no mushroom roots just yet - so cannot check all neighbors for blue touch violet (done in mushroom pass)
;; - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - touching anything?
die;; fir particle can now die, having completed its purpose
] ;; close green neighbors, maybe coalesce new root
] ;; close not yellow
] ;; close ask fir particles
end
to coalesce-fir-root [ current-patch ]
;; Coalesce a new fir root on current patch
;; \\\\\ is a fir tree nearby? - prefer hooking to it first over an existing root (if-else)
let green-nabor-trees firs-on [neighbors] of current-patch
ifelse (any? green-nabor-trees) ;; neighbor could be a root and neighbor tree could be empty - make sure you have tree to check
[ ask one-of green-nabor-trees
[ ;; current patch will host a spruce root for this tree with data from neighbor
let green-nabor-owner self ;; self is one fir tree
ask current-patch ;; self is now patch
[ sprout-fir-roots 1 [ ;; commands to initialize
setxy pxcor pycor
set pcolor green ;; patch is green
set color green - 4 ;; root is darker than patch
set origin green-nabor-owner
set tree-set turtle-set green-nabor-owner ;; trees that fir root knows about
set mushroom-set no-turtles ;; encounter mushrooms later
]
] ;; sprout
;; work on neighbor tree - not neighbor root - tell neighbor tree about this new root
;; grab existing extended-root-set from neighbor
let new-fir-root fir-roots-on current-patch
let ers [extended-root-set] of green-nabor-owner
ask green-nabor-owner [ set extended-root-set (turtle-set new-fir-root ers)] ;; new root goes in front of set
] ;; close ask neighbor tree
] ;; close true block ifelse
[ ;; false block ifelse - no fir tree as neighbor - must be one or more fir root neighbors
let green-nabor-roots fir-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch
;; bfore making a new root on this patch, check to see if there is already one there
if ( not any? fir-roots-on current-patch )
[ ;; OK to make a new one
;; \\\\\ just check one neighbor to make new root - but need to check all neighbors for touching situations after new root is made
if (any? green-nabor-roots) ;; neighbor could be a tree and neighbor roots could be empty - make sure you have roots to check
[ ask one-of green-nabor-roots
[ ;; current patch will host a fir root for same tree as neighbor root
let green-nabor-owner [origin] of self ;; self is one fir root - origin is a tree
ask current-patch ;; self is now patch
[ sprout-fir-roots 1 [ ;; commands to initialize
setxy pxcor pycor
set pcolor green ;; patch is green
set color green - 4 ;; root is darker than patch
set origin green-nabor-owner
set tree-set turtle-set green-nabor-owner ;; trees that fir root knows about
set mushroom-set no-turtles ;; encounter mushrooms later
]
] ;; sprout
;; neighbor root's tree's extended-root-set gets this fir root
let new-fir-root fir-roots-on current-patch
let ers [extended-root-set] of green-nabor-owner ; grab existing data
ask green-nabor-owner [ set extended-root-set (turtle-set new-fir-root ers) ] ;; add new root to front of existing set
]
]
] ;; close fir-roots-on current-patch check
] ;; close false block of ifelse
end
to check-green-touch-green [ current-patch ]
let green-n fir-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch ;; neighbors to check could host more than one green root
let new-fir-root one-of fir-roots-on current-patch ;; for current patch should be only one
let fir-owner [origin] of new-fir-root
ask green-n ;; green-n is a set of patches
[ let green-n-root one-of fir-roots-on green-n
ask green-n-root
[ let green-n-owner origin
;; ask about neighbor's owner
if (green-n-owner != fir-owner)
[ ;; hook new tree-set to closest neighbor tree-set vice versa
;; figure out closest neighbor root and harvest its data
let green-n-candidate green-n with [origin = green-n-owner] ;; candidates for closest root must be owned by neighbor
let closest-fir-root-patch min-one-of green-n-candidate [distance current-patch]
let closest-fir-root fir-roots-on closest-fir-root-patch
;; ask closest fir root for its tree set and tree [origin]
let closest-fir-tree-set [tree-set] of closest-fir-root
let closest-fir-tree [origin] of closest-fir-root
;; grab existing tree-set data for both new and closest BEFORE any updates
let new-ets [tree-set] of new-fir-root ;; toucher
let closest-ets [tree-set] of closest-fir-root ;; touchee
ask new-fir-root [ set tree-set (turtle-set new-ets closest-fir-tree) ] ;; toucher root knows touchee tree (last on end)
ask closest-fir-root [ set tree-set (turtle-set closest-ets fir-owner) ] ;; touchee root knows toucher tree (last on end)
ask new-fir-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; new fir root turns yellow
ask closest-fir-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; closest fir root turns yellow
] ;; close hook
] ;; close ask green-n-root
] ;; close ask green-n
end
to check-green-touch-blue [ current-patch ]
let blue-n spruce-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch ;; neighbors to check could host more than one blue root
;; fir root on current patch is asked to do this check - identify which fir root is the checker
let new-fir-root one-of fir-roots-on current-patch ;; for current patch there should be only one
ask new-fir-root ;; self is now the fir root doing the checking
[
let fir-owner origin ;; fir tree that owns the root doing the checking
ask blue-n ;; blue -n is a set of patches
[ let blue-n-root one-of spruce-roots-on blue-n
ask blue-n-root
[ let blue-n-owner origin ;; spruce tree that owns the root being checked
;; don't need to ask about neighbor's owner - green and blue will be different owners
;; just do the hook trees instructions
let blue-n-candidate blue-n with [origin = blue-n-owner] ;; candidates for closest root must be owned by neighbor
let closest-spr-root-patch min-one-of blue-n-candidate [distance current-patch]
let closest-spr-root spruce-roots-on closest-spr-root-patch
;; ask closest spruce root for its tree set and tree [origin]
let closest-spr-tree-set [tree-set] of closest-spr-root
let closest-spr-tree [origin] of closest-spr-root
;; grab existing tree-set data for both new and closest BEFORE any updates
let new-ets [tree-set] of new-fir-root ;; toucher
let closest-ets [tree-set] of closest-spr-root ;; touchee
ask new-fir-root [ set tree-set (turtle-set new-ets closest-spr-tree) ] ;; append spruce tree to end of fir's tree set
ask closest-spr-root [ set tree-set (turtle-set closest-ets fir-owner) ] ;; append fir tree to end of spruce's tree set
;; need to update mushroom-sets too - but mushroom roots have not been grown yet
ask new-fir-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; new fir root (green) turns yellow
ask closest-spr-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; closest spruce root (blue) turns yellow
] ;; close ask blue root
] ;; close ask blue neighbors
] ;; close ask fir root
end
to update-firs
;; increase age
ask firs [ set age age + 1 ]
;; adjust color for age
ask firs [ set color scale-color green age 10 0 ]
;; adjust size for age
ask firs [ set size (size + (age mod ((random 3) + 1))) ]
end
;; ===== mushroom code =====
to generate-mushroom-plist
set mushroom-plist (list) ;; start with empty list
rand-mushroom-pxy-coord ;; generate random list of seed patches
end
to dissolve-mushroom-particles
ask mushroom-particles with [color = orange]
[set color black die]
end
to propagate-mushroom-roots
;; create random mushroom particles that look for a mushroom/mushroom root to coalesce around
create-mushroom-particles num-mushroom-particles [
set color orange
set size 2 ;; easier to see
setxy random-xcor random-ycor
]
ask mushroom-particles
[ ;; set them in motion - individual particles die after making a root - rest die later (dissolve)
right random mushroom-wiggle-angle
left random mushroom-wiggle-angle
forward 1
]
end
to plant-mushrooms
;; use the mushroom patch list to sprout mushrooms on designated patches
foreach mushroom-plist [
ask ? [ sprout-mushrooms 1 [ ;; commands to initialize
set age random 3
setxy pxcor pycor
set pcolor violet ;; patch under mushroom is violet
set color violet + 4 ;; mushroom on patch is lighter shade
set shape "mushroom"
set size 6
set i-touch (list) ;; list of everything I touch (after all root generation is complete)
set isolated? false
set extended-root-set no-turtles
]
] ;; sprout
] ;; close foreach
end
to update-mushrooms
;; increase age
ask mushrooms [ set age age + 1 ]
;; adjust color for age
ask mushrooms [ set color scale-color violet age 10 0 ]
;; adjust size for age
ask mushrooms [ set size (size + (age mod ((random 3) + 1))) ]
end
to grow-mushrooms
;; mushroom particles are wiggling around in the world
ask mushroom-particles [
let current-patch patch-at 0 0 ;; target patch under particle
;; near a patch that is color-coded for a muahroom or mushroom root ?
ifelse (any? neighbors with [ pcolor = yellow ])
[ ;; some kind of root connection already established - don't make anything here to avoid duplicates
]
[ ;; otherwise - not yellow
if (any? neighbors with [ pcolor = violet ]) ;; ask particles if mushroom patches (mush or mush root) nearby
[ ;; violet neighbors, maybe coalesce new root
ask current-patch [ coalesce-mushroom-root self ]
;; - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - touching anything?
;; ///// coalesce might have made a new muah root on current patch /////
;; check all neighbors for violet root touching violet root with different root-owner mushrooms (mushroom root touching mushroom root directly)
let violet-n mushroom-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch
let new-mush-root mushroom-roots-on current-patch
if any? new-mush-root
[ if (any? violet-n) ;; neighbor could be a mushroom - make sure you have roots to check
[ ask current-patch [ check-violet-touch-violet self ]
]
]
;; ///// coalesce might have made a new mush root on current patch /////
;; check all neighbors for violet root touching blue root (mush root touching spruce root)
let blue-n spruce-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch
if any? new-mush-root
[ if (any? blue-n) ;; neighbor could be a tree - make sure you hook to roots
[ ask current-patch [ check-violet-touch-blue self ]
]
]
;; ///// coalesce might have made a new mush root on current patch /////
;; check all neighbors for violet root touching green root (mush root touching fir root)
let green-n fir-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch
if any? new-mush-root
[ if (any? green-n) ;; neighbor could be a tree - make sure you have roots to check
[ ask current-patch [ check-violet-touch-green self ]
]
]
;; - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - touching anything?
die;; mushroom particle can now die, having completed its purpose
] ;; close violet neighbors, maybe coalesce new root
] ;; close not yellow
] ;; close ask mushroom particles
end
to coalesce-mushroom-root [ current-patch ]
;; Coalesce a new mush root on current patch
;; \\\\\ is a mushroom nearby? - prefer hooking to it first over an existing root (if-else)
let violet-nabor-mushrooms mushrooms-on [neighbors] of current-patch
ifelse (any? violet-nabor-mushrooms) ;; neighbor could be a root and neighbor mushroom could be empty - make sure you have mushroom to check
[ ask one-of violet-nabor-mushrooms
[ ;; current patch will host a mush root for this tree
let violet-nabor-owner self ;; self is one mushroom
ask current-patch ;; self is now patch
[ sprout-mushroom-roots 1 [ ;; commands to initialize
setxy pxcor pycor
set pcolor violet ;; patch is violet
set color violet - 4 ;; root is darker than patch
set origin violet-nabor-owner ;; owner of new roots
set tree-set no-turtles ;; encounter trees elsewhere
set mushroom-set violet-nabor-owner
]
] ;; sprout
;; work on neighbor mushroom - not neighbor mushroom root tell neighbor mushroom about this new root
;; grab existing extended-root-set from neighbor
let new-mush-root mushroom-roots-on current-patch
let ers [extended-root-set] of violet-nabor-owner
ask violet-nabor-owner [ set extended-root-set (turtle-set new-mush-root ers)] ;; new root goes in front of set
] ;; close ask neighbor tree
] ;; close true block ifelse
[ ;; false block ifelse - no mushroom as neighbor - must be one or more mush root neighbors
let violet-nabor-roots mushroom-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch
if ( not any? mushroom-roots-on current-patch )
[ ;; OK to make a new root here
;; \\\\\ just check one neighbor to make new root - but need to check all neighbors for touching situations after new root is made
if (any? violet-nabor-roots) ;; neighbor could be a mushroom and neighbor mushroom roots could be empty - make sure you have roots to check
[ ask one-of violet-nabor-roots
[ ;; current patch will host a mushroom root for same mushroom as neighbor root
let violet-nabor-owner [origin] of self ;; self is one mushroom root - origin is a mushroom
ask current-patch ;; self is now patch
[ sprout-mushroom-roots 1 [ ;; commands to initialize
setxy pxcor pycor
set pcolor violet ;; patch is violet
set color violet - 4 ;; root is darker than patch
set origin violet-nabor-owner
set tree-set no-turtles ;; encounter trees elsewhere
set mushroom-set violet-nabor-owner
]
] ;; sprout
;; neighbor root's mushroom's extended root set gets this mush root
let new-mush-root mushroom-roots-on current-patch
let ers [extended-root-set] of violet-nabor-owner ; grab existing data
ask violet-nabor-owner [ set extended-root-set (turtle-set new-mush-root ers) ] ;; add new root to front of existing set
] ;; close ask violet root
] ;; close ask violet neighbor
] ;; close mushroom-roots-on current-patch check
] ;; close false block ifelse
end
to check-violet-touch-violet [ current-patch ]
let violet-n mushroom-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch ;; neighbors to check could host more than one violet root
let new-mush-root one-of mushroom-roots-on current-patch ;; for current patch should be only one
let mush-owner [origin] of new-mush-root
ask violet-n ;; violet-n is a set of patches
[ let violet-n-root one-of mushroom-roots-on violet-n
ask violet-n-root
[ let violet-n-owner origin ;; ask about neighbor's owner
if (violet-n-owner != mush-owner)
[ ;; hook new mushroom set to closest neighbor mushroom set and vice versa
;; figure out closest neighbor root and harvest its data
let violet-n-candidate violet-n with [origin = violet-n-owner] ;; candidates for closest root must be owned by neighbor
let closest-mush-root-patch min-one-of violet-n-candidate [distance current-patch]
let closest-mush-root mushroom-roots-on closest-mush-root-patch
;; ask closest mush root for its mushroom set and mushroom
let closest-mush-set [mushroom-set] of closest-mush-root
let closest-mroom [origin] of closest-mush-root
let pair (turtle-set mush-owner closest-mroom) ;; guarantee mushroom and mushroom pair up
;; grab existing mushroom-set data for both new and closest BEFORE any updates
let new-ems [mushroom-set] of new-mush-root ;; toucher
let closest-ems [mushroom-set] of closest-mush-root ;; touchee
;; update mushroom set data
ask new-mush-root [ set mushroom-set (turtle-set new-ems pair) ] ;; toucher root knows touchee root (last on end)
ask closest-mush-root [ set mushroom-set (turtle-set closest-ems pair) ] ;; touchee root knows toucher root (last on end)
ask new-mush-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; new mush root (violet) turns yellow
ask closest-mush-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; closest mush root (violet) turns yellow
] ;; close hook
] ;; close ask violet root
] ;; close ask violet neighbors
end
to check-violet-touch-blue [ current-patch ]
let blue-n spruce-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch ;; neighbors to check could host more than one blue root
;; mush root on current patch is asked to do this check - identify which mush root is the checker
let new-mush-root one-of mushroom-roots-on current-patch ;; for current patch there should be only one
ask new-mush-root ;; self is now the mush root doing the checking
[
let mush-owner origin ;; mushroom that owns the root doing the checking
ask blue-n ;; blue-n is a set of patches
[ let blue-n-root one-of spruce-roots-on blue-n
ask blue-n-root
[ let blue-n-owner origin ;; spruce tree that owns the root being checked
;; don't need to ask about neighbor's owner - violet and blue will be different owners
;; just do the hook mushroom set instructions
let blue-n-candidate blue-n with [origin = blue-n-owner] ;; candidates for closest root must be owned by neighbor
let closest-spr-root-patch min-one-of blue-n-candidate [distance current-patch]
let closest-spr-root spruce-roots-on closest-spr-root-patch
;; ask closest mush root for its mushroom set and mushroom [origin]
let closest-mush-set [mushroom-set] of closest-spr-root
let closest-mroom [origin] of closest-spr-root
;; grab existing mushroom-set data for both new and closest BEFORE any updates
let new-ems [mushroom-set] of new-mush-root ;; toucher
let closest-ems [mushroom-set] of closest-spr-root ;; touchee
ask new-mush-root [ set mushroom-set (turtle-set new-ems mush-owner) ] ;; append mushroom to end of mushroom root's set
ask closest-spr-root [ set mushroom-set (turtle-set closest-ems mush-owner) ] ;; append mushroom to end of spruce root's set
;; need to update tree sets too
;; blue root needs to know mushroom origin
;; and mushroom root needs to know about blue tree origin
;; grab existing tree-set data for both new and closest BEFORE any updates
let new-ets [tree-set] of new-mush-root
let closest-ets [tree-set] of closest-spr-root
let pair (turtle-set mush-owner blue-n-owner) ;; guarantee mushroom and tree pair up
ask new-mush-root [ set tree-set (turtle-set new-ets pair) ]
ask closest-spr-root [ set tree-set (turtle-set closest-ets pair) ]
;; need to update both extended-root-sets (mushroom and spruce tree)
;; grab existing extended-root-set data for both new and closest BEFORE any updates
;; owners do updates of root sets
let new-ers [extended-root-set] of mush-owner
let closest-ers [extended-root-set] of blue-n-owner
ask mush-owner [ set extended-root-set (turtle-set new-ers blue-n-root )] ;; append spruce root to mushroom's root set
ask blue-n-owner [ set extended-root-set (turtle-set closest-ers new-mush-root) ] ;; append new mush root to end of spruce root set
ask new-mush-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; new mush root (violet) turns yellow
ask closest-spr-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; closest spruce root (blue) turns yellow
] ;; close ask blue root
] ;; close ask blue neighbors
] ;; close ask mush root
end
to check-violet-touch-green [ current-patch ]
let green-n fir-roots-on [neighbors] of current-patch ;; neighbors to check could host more than one green root
;; mushroom root on current patch is asked to do this check - identify which mushroom root is checker
let new-mush-root one-of mushroom-roots-on current-patch ;; for current patch there should be only one
ask new-mush-root ;; self is now the mush root doing the checking
[
let mush-owner origin ;; mushroom that owns the root doing the checking
ask green-n ;; green-n is a set of patches
[ let green-n-root one-of fir-roots-on green-n
ask green-n-root
[ let green-n-owner origin ;; fir tree that owns the root being checked
;; don't need to ask about neighbor's owner - green and violet will be different owners
;; just do the hook mushroom set instructions
let green-n-candidate green-n with [origin = green-n-owner] ;; candidates for closest root must be owned by neighbor
let closest-fir-root-patch min-one-of green-n [distance current-patch]
let closest-fir-root fir-roots-on closest-fir-root-patch
;; ask closest fir root for its mushroom set and mushroom [origin]
let closest-mush-set [mushroom-set] of closest-fir-root
let closest-mroom [origin] of closest-fir-root
;; grab existing mushroom-set data for both new and closest BEFORE any updates
let new-ems [mushroom-set] of new-mush-root ;; toucher
let closest-ems [mushroom-set] of closest-fir-root ;; touchee
ask new-mush-root [ set mushroom-set (turtle-set new-ems mush-owner) ] ;; append mushroom to end of mushroom's mushroom set
ask closest-fir-root [ set mushroom-set (turtle-set closest-ems mush-owner) ] ;; append mushroom to end of fir's mushroom set
;; need to update tree sets too
;; green root needs to know mushroom origin
;; and mushroom root needs to know about tree origin
;; grab existing tree-set data for both new and closest BEFORE any updates
let new-ets [tree-set] of new-mush-root
let closest-ets [tree-set] of closest-fir-root
let pair (turtle-set mush-owner green-n-owner) ;; guarantee mushroom and tree pair up
ask new-mush-root [ set tree-set (turtle-set new-ets pair) ]
ask closest-fir-root [ set tree-set (turtle-set closest-ets pair) ]
;; need to update both extended-root-sets (mushroom and fir tree)
;; grab existing extended-root-set data for both new and closest BEFORE any updates
;; owners do updates of root sets
let new-ers [extended-root-set] of mush-owner
let closest-ers [extended-root-set] of green-n-owner
ask mush-owner [ set extended-root-set (turtle-set new-ers green-n-root )] ;; append fir root to mushroom's root set
ask green-n-owner [ set extended-root-set (turtle-set closest-ers new-mush-root) ] ;; append new mush root to end of fir root set
ask new-mush-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; new mush root (violet) turns yellow
ask closest-fir-root [ set pcolor yellow ] ;; closest fir root (green) turns yellow
] ;; close ask green root
] ;; close ask green neighbors
] ;; close ask spruce root
end
;;====== support procedures for link pass ======
to collect-touches
let touches no-turtles
;; all agents have a a tree-set and a mushroom set
;; only use the agents on reduced-search-agentset which has eliminted the isolated agents
;; - - - - - spruce collect - - - - -
let spr-agents reduced-search-agentset with [breed = spruces]
ask spr-agents
[ let cur-spr self
set touches (list)
ask extended-root-set with [pcolor = yellow]
[ask tree-set
[if (not (member? self touches))
[ set touches fput self touches ]
]
]
ask extended-root-set with [pcolor = yellow]
[ask mushroom-set
[ if (not (member? self touches))
[ set touches fput self touches ]
]
]
set i-touch touches
] ;; ask spruce agents
;; - - - - - fir collect - - - - -
let fir-agents reduced-search-agentset with [breed = firs]
ask fir-agents
[ let cur-fir self
set touches (list)
ask extended-root-set with [pcolor = yellow]
[ask tree-set
[if (not (member? self touches))
[ set touches fput self touches ]
]
]
ask extended-root-set with [pcolor = yellow]
[ask mushroom-set
[ if (not (member? self touches))
[ set touches fput self touches ]
]
]
set i-touch touches
] ;; ask fir agents
;; - - - - - mushroom collect - - - - -
let mush-agents reduced-search-agentset with [breed = mushrooms]
ask mush-agents
[ let cur-mush self
set touches (list)
ask extended-root-set with [pcolor = yellow]
[ ask tree-set
[if (not (member? self touches))
[ set touches fput self touches ]
]
]
ask extended-root-set with [pcolor = yellow]
[ask mushroom-set
[ if (not (member? self touches))
[ set touches fput self touches ]
]
]
set i-touch touches
] ;; ask mushrooms
end
to detect-isolation
;; set isolation? flag in each tree and mushroom - roots do not have an isolated flag
; = = = = = = = = = =
ask spruces
[ let yellow-ers extended-root-set with [pcolor = yellow]
;; if spruce root extended-root-set touches anything, it will have [pcolor = yellow]
if (not (any? yellow-ers))
[ set isolated? true ]
]
; = = = = = = = = = =
ask firs
[ let yellow-ers extended-root-set with [pcolor = yellow]
;; if fir root extended-root-set touches anything, it will have [pcolor = yellow]
if (not (any? yellow-ers))
[ set isolated? true ]
]
; = = = = = = = = = =
ask mushrooms
[ let yellow-ers extended-root-set with [pcolor = yellow]
;; if mushrom root extended-root-set touches anything, it will have [pcolor = yellow]
if (not (any? yellow-ers))
[ set isolated? true ]
]
end
to hide-isolated-agents
;; don't want to kill the isolated agents, just hide them in the background
let iso-agt all-agents-set with [isolated? = true]
if (any? iso-agt) [
ask iso-agt [
;; all-agts is spruce, fir, and mushroom breeds
;; they all have extended root sets
;; set everything to black - fading into background
let ers extended-root-set
ask ers [
set color black
set pcolor black
]
set shape "default"
set color black
set pcolor black
]
]
end
;;----- Start of general utilities -----
;; Utility to generate a list of patches for spruce seeds
to rand-spruce-pxy-coord
ask n-of num-spruce-seeds patches [
loop [ ;; add a random seed patch to the front of list of seed patches
set spruce-plist fput (patch random-pxcor random-pycor) spruce-plist
stop ]
]
end
;; Utility to generate a list of patches for fir seeds
;; BUT not too close to the spruces
to rand-fir-pxy-coord
let tree-patches spruce-plist
let trees patch-set tree-patches
let num-good-fir-seeds 0
let separation-distance 4 * root-radius
while [num-good-fir-seeds < num-fir-seeds] ;; generate as many mushroom seeds as input slider requests
[ let candidate-patch (patch random-pxcor random-pycor)
;; check candidate against known tree patches for distance violation
ask candidate-patch [ let violators trees with [distance myself < separation-distance]
if not any? violators ;; no trees violate distance check
[
set fir-plist fput candidate-patch fir-plist
set num-good-fir-seeds (num-good-fir-seeds + 1)
] ;; use patch
] ;; close ask candidate patch
] ;; close while
end
;; Utility to generate a list of patches for mushroom seeds
;; BUT - not too close to the randomly placed spruces and firs patches
to rand-mushroom-pxy-coord
let tree-patches sentence spruce-plist fir-plist ;; check both kinds of trees
let trees patch-set tree-patches
let num-good-mush-seeds 0
let separation-distance 3 * root-radius
while [num-good-mush-seeds < num-mushroom-seeds] ;; generate as many mushroom seeds as input slider requests
[ let candidate-patch (patch random-pxcor random-pycor)
;; check candidate against known tree patches for distance violation
ask candidate-patch [ let violators trees with [distance myself < separation-distance]
if not any? violators ;; no trees violate distance check
[
set mushroom-plist fput candidate-patch mushroom-plist
set num-good-mush-seeds (num-good-mush-seeds + 1)
] ;; use patch
] ;; close ask candidate patch
] ;; close while
end
;;+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
;; Because the random patch list generation is done in three different invocations,
;; there is concern that selection of a random patch by trees and mushrooms could
;; result in duplicates. (Duplicates don't seem to happening so comment out call to clean-plists)
;;
;; If duplicates occur in future, call this utility to clean up randomly generated plists
;; for {spruces and firs} and {mushrooms} [not perfect - needs more index control]
;; The strategy: First make one joined list by combining the two tree plists {spruces, firs}
;; Remove duplicates and decide tree breakpoint to separate them again (later) into {spruces, firs}
;; Repeat strategy in similar fashion for mushrooms joined to reduced tree list
;; Limitations: First reduced joined tree list length could shrink upon remove-duplicates,
;; but we keep the reduced joined tree list constant by subsuming mushroom patches
;; for the trees if necessary.
;; ALSO NOTE: For sublist index1 is inclusive while index2 is exclusive
to clean-plists
;; join the tree lists, de-dup, establish index for breaking joined list back into 2 lists
let joined-plist sentence spruce-plist fir-plist ;; {spruces, firs}
set joined-plist remove-duplicates joined-plist
let trees-plist-len length joined-plist ;; preserve this length for trees part of list
let trees-breakpoint trees-plist-len / 2 ;; for now, distribute equitably between tree breeds
;; join the mushroom list to the joined, de-duped tree list and de-dup again
let joined-hybrid-plist sentence joined-plist mushroom-plist ;; {spruces, firs, mushrooms}
set joined-hybrid-plist remove-duplicates joined-hybrid-plist
set spruce-plist sublist joined-hybrid-plist 0 (trees-breakpoint)
set fir-plist sublist joined-hybrid-plist (trees-breakpoint) (trees-plist-len)
set mushroom-plist sublist joined-hybrid-plist (trees-plist-len) (length joined-hybrid-plist)
end
;;+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
;;------ end utilities ------
; Copyright 2006 Uri Wilensky.
; See Info tab for full copyright and license.
@#$#@#$#@
GRAPHICS-WINDOW
261
10
874
644
100
100
3.0
1
10
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
-100
100
-100
100
1
1
1
ticks
30.0
BUTTON
20
195
83
228
NIL
setup
NIL
1
T
OBSERVER
NIL
NIL
NIL
NIL
1
BUTTON
155
195
218
228
NIL
go
T
1
T
OBSERVER
NIL
NIL
NIL
NIL
0
SLIDER
10
440
235
473
tree-wiggle-angle
tree-wiggle-angle
10
360
60
5
1
degrees
HORIZONTAL
SLIDER
10
477
235
510
num-spruce-particles
num-spruce-particles
0
100
80
1
1
NIL
HORIZONTAL
SLIDER
11
513
236
546
num-fir-particles
num-fir-particles
0
100
80
1
1
NIL
HORIZONTAL
SLIDER
9
593
234
626
num-mushroom-particles
num-mushroom-particles
0
100
100
1
1
NIL
HORIZONTAL
SLIDER
9
556
234
589
mushroom-wiggle-angle
mushroom-wiggle-angle
10
360
120
5
1
degrees
HORIZONTAL
SLIDER
20
150
218
183
num-mushroom-seeds
num-mushroom-seeds
1
100
30
1
1
NIL
HORIZONTAL
SLIDER
19
66
219
99
num-spruce-seeds
num-spruce-seeds
1
50
20
1
1
NIL
HORIZONTAL
SLIDER
19
109
219
142
num-fir-seeds
num-fir-seeds
1
50
20
1
1
NIL
HORIZONTAL
MONITOR
902
23
1037
68
Spruce Mean Age
mean [age] of spruces
2
1
11
MONITOR
903
74
1038
119
Fir Mean Age
mean [age] of firs
2
1
11
MONITOR
905
125
1040
170
Mushroom Mean Age
mean [age] of mushrooms
2
1
11
TEXTBOX
20
355
170
420
Controls below tweak root growth \nfor trees and mushrooms IF diffusion used
12
0.0
1
TEXTBOX
24
12
174
57
How many spruce, fir, \nand mushrooms to generate?
12
0.0
1
TEXTBOX
915
450
1065
476
Controls below tweak run time limits for simulation
11
0.0
1
PLOT
905
180
1105
330
mushroom connections
NIL
NIL
0.0
10.0
0.0
10.0
true
false
"" ""
PENS
"pen-0" 1.0 0 -16777216 true "" "plot count mushroom-roots with [pcolor = yellow]"
SLIDER
915
490
1100
523
tree-pass-limit
tree-pass-limit
0
200
90
1
1
NIL
HORIZONTAL
SLIDER
915
530
1102
563
mushroom-pass-limit
mushroom-pass-limit
0
200
140
1
1
NIL
HORIZONTAL
SWITCH
915
400
1100
433
hide-isolated?
hide-isolated?
0
1
-1000
@#$#@#$#@
## ACKNOWLEDGMENT (Diffusion Model) - see additional acknowledgements at end
This model is from Chapter Three of the book "Introduction to Agent-Based Modeling: Modeling Natural, Social and Engineered Complex Systems with NetLogo", by Uri Wilensky & William Rand.
* Wilensky, U. & Rand, W. (2015). Introduction to Agent-Based Modeling: Modeling Natural, Social and Engineered Complex Systems with NetLogo. Cambridge, MA. MIT Press.
This model is in the IABM Textbook folder of the NetLogo Models Library. The model, as well as any updates to the model, can also be found on the textbook website: http://www.intro-to-abm.com/.
## WHAT IS IT?
Like the main DLA model, this model demonstrates diffusion-limited aggregation, in which particles moving (diffusing) in random trajectories stick together (aggregate) to form beautiful treelike branching fractal structures. There are many patterns found in nature that resemble the patterns produced by this model: crystals, coral, fungi, lightning, and so on.
This model is called DLA Simple because it is it is a simplified version of the main DLA model from the NetLogo models library. In the main model, new particles are created as existing particles aggregate. In this model, particles are only created at the beginning. The main model is more computationally efficient, but the rules that drive the phenomenon are more digestible in this model.
## HOW TO USE IT
Press SETUP to make the initial seed and NUM-PARTICLES particles, then press GO to run the model.
The WIGGLE-ANGLE slider controls how wiggly the paths the particles follow are. If WIGGLE-ANGLE is 0, they move in straight lines. If WIGGLE-ANGLE is 360, they move in a totally random direction at each time step.
## THINGS TO NOTICE
Note that the resulting structure has a branching structure, like a tree. Why does this happen?
What other phenomena in the world do the shapes remind you of? Is this aggregation process a plausible model of how those phenomena occur?
## THINGS TO TRY
Try different settings for how much the turtles turn as they do their random walk (the WIGGLE-ANGLE slider). What is the effect on the appearance of the resulting aggregate? Why?
Does it make any difference whether there are more or fewer particles? Why or why not?
## EXTENDING THE MODEL
What happens if you start with more than one "seed" patch? What happens if the seed is a line instead of a point?
Can you find a way to modify the code so the resulting pattern spirals out instead of radiating straight out?
The rule used in this model is that a particle "sticks" if any of the eight patches surrounding it are green. What do the resulting structures look like if you use a different rule (for example, only testing the single patch ahead, or using `neighbors4` instead of `neighbors`)?
Can you compute the fractal dimension of the aggregate?
If instead of using green, you gradually vary the color of deposited particles over time, you can see more vividly the accretion of "layers" over time. (The effect is also visually pleasing.)
The model will run faster if the turtles are invisible, so you may want to add a switch that hides them (using the HT command).
## NETLOGO FEATURES
Note the use of the `neighbors` primitive.
## RELATED MODELS
The various models in the "Fractals" subsection of the "Mathematics" section of the Models Library demonstrate some other ways of "growing" fractal structures.
The "Percolation" model in the "Earth Science" section produces patterns resembling the patterns in this model.
## CREDITS AND REFERENCES
This model is a simplified version of:
* Wilensky, U. (1997). NetLogo DLA model. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/DLA. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
The concept of diffusion limited aggregation was invented by T.A. Witten and L.M. Sander in 1981. Witten, T. & Sanders, L. (1981). Diffusion-limited aggregation, a kinetic critical phenomena. Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(19), 1400–1403 (1981).
Tamas Viczek's book "Fractal Growth Phenomena" contains a discussion, as do many other books about fractals.
## HOW TO CITE
This model is part of the textbook, “Introduction to Agent-Based Modeling: Modeling Natural, Social and Engineered Complex Systems with NetLogo.”
If you mention this model or the NetLogo software in a publication, we ask that you include the citations below.
For the model itself:
* Wilensky, U., Rand, W. (2006). NetLogo DLA Simple model. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/DLASimple. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern Institute on Complex Systems, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
Please cite the NetLogo software as:
* Wilensky, U. (1999). NetLogo. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
Please cite the textbook as:
* Wilensky, U. & Rand, W. (2015). Introduction to Agent-Based Modeling: Modeling Natural, Social and Engineered Complex Systems with NetLogo. Cambridge, MA. MIT Press.
## COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
Copyright 2006 Uri Wilensky.
![CC BY-NC-SA 3.0](http://ccl.northwestern.edu/images/creativecommons/byncsa.png)
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
Commercial licenses are also available. To inquire about commercial licenses, please contact Uri Wilensky at uri@northwestern.edu.
## ADDITIONAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT (Mushroom-Tree Network Model)
This model was developed as a project assignment for a Massive Open Online Course
(MOOC), An Introduction to Agent-Based Modeling, sponsored by the Complexity Explorer, through the Santa Fe Institute, and taught by Professor Bill Rand.
The inspiration for this model comes from a TED Talk by Suzanne Simard. See
https://www.ted.com/talks/suzanne_simard_how_trees_talk_to_each_other?language=en#t-5465
Teri Roberts developed the code to visually generate and map a forest-setting network
of spruce/fir trees amd mushrooms with root systems using the Diffusion Model to grow the roots. The roots are color-coded and define the connectivity between the types of plants.
After the root touching conditions (adjacency lists) are established, one line of code
produces the network graph. The network then provides a basis for perturbation of the
plant network by adding and removing trees and assessing results. Please forgive the
newbie fumbling with the code development and style. My goal was to learn the NetLogo language and Integrated Development Environment (IDE) tools and to share this code with the New Mexico Supercomputing Challenge as entertainment and enlightenment.
See http://www.supercomputingchallenge.org/
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